Narcotic pain medications are often used for the management of moderate to severe pain such as back pain, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia syndrome. One of the most common complications associated with pain medications that has a significant impact on quality of life is constipation. Constipation can add to the discomfort and may serve as a barrier to effective pain management by limiting use or lead to discontinuation.

Opioid induced constipation (OIC) is characterized by infrequent, difficult, or incomplete bowel movements and is caused by the medications that can lead to a decrease in GI motility.

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